Most patients undergoing anesthesia can have their blood pressures monitored by a non-invasive method. However, invasive blood pressure monitoring may be needed to adequately monitor certain patients undergoing certain procedures.


Patient-related indications:

(1) shock or hemodynamic instability

(2) severe cardiac disease

(3) severe respiratory disease with respiratory failure

(4) elevated intracranial pressure

(5) severe trauma


Procedure-related indications:

(1) major cardiothoracic surgery

(2) major intra-abdominal surgery

(3) intracranial surgery

(4) spinal surgery


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