A urine that is clear and yellow with negative dipstick reactions has a very low yield for significant findings on microscopic examination. The presence of certain findings can help identify those urine specimen on which a microscopic examination is justified.


Indications for performing a urine microscopic examination:

(1) The dipstick test for blood is positive.

(2) The dipstick test for protein is positive.

(3) The dipstick test for leukocytes (esterase) is positive.

(4) The dipstick for nitrites is positive.

(5) The dipstick for glucose is 3+ or 4+.

(6) The specific gravity is > 1.035

(7) The urine is slightly cloudy or cloudy.

(8) The microscopic examination is specifically ordered by the physician.

(9) The patient has a history of significant renal disease and/or renal transplantation.



• Normally the urine protein is negative. I am not sure if urinalysis is necessary with trace protein as the only finding.

• Some recommend that the microscopic examination be performed when both the leukocyte esterase AND nitrite tests are positive, rather than only 1 (ORing).

• In the implementation I displayed nitrites similar to the other analytes. On the Bayer Multistix there are only 2 squares with a positive reaction indicated by a color change in one of the squares.


If none of these indications are present, then the microscopic examination is low yield and need not be performed.


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