Usually stones are removed by retrograde endoscopic ureteroscopy. Occasionally a percutaneous antegrade approach may be indicated.


Indications for removing a stone in the ureter using percutaneous antegrade ureteroscopy:

(1) presence of a multiple impacted stones in the upper ureter

(2) presence of a stone in the renal pelvis in addition to the ureter

(3) presence of a ureteral stone following urinary diversion

(4) following a failed attempt to remove an impacted stone in the upper ureter using a retrograde approach


Percutaneous antegrade ureteroscopy should be considered if any of these conditions are present.


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