A woman with a pierced nipple may have problems with breastfeeding her infant due to a duct obstruction interfering with milk release.
(1) history of nipple piercing
(2) insufficient milk release from the breast despite attempts at breast pumping
(3) obstruction of the milk ducts demonstrated by an imaging study (ductogram, etc)
(4) exclusion of other causes of impaired breastfeeding such as problems with infant attachment
One breast may be affected while the other is unaffected.
Risk factors for duct obstruction at the nipple might include:
(1) scarring after the piercing
(2) poor piercing technique
(4) allergy to metal used in a nipple ring
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Specialty: Nutrition, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pedatrics