An orbital pseudotumor may involve one or more structures within the orbit, which can be demonstrated on CT or other imaging studies.


Structures that may be involved alone or in combination:

(1) lacrimal gland

(2) extraocular muscle(s) - one or multiple

(3) fat - may be focal or diffuse

(4) orbital apex - may be a focal mass or diffuse

(5) globe - may involve Tenon's space and/or uvea-sclera

(6) optic nerve (optic neuritis) and/or perineural soft tissue (perineuritis)

(7) extra-orbital structures - cavernous sinus, intracranial structures


Special kinds:

(1) Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: apical involvement with extension into the cavernous sinus, usually with ophthalmoplegia

(2) sclerosing pseudotumor with diffuse involvement of all the orbital structures with fixation of the globe


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