A patient with a chronic hemolytic anemia is at increased risk for pulmonary hypertension.


Hereditary hemolytic anemias

(1) sickle cell anemia

(2) thalassemia intermedia and major

(3) hereditary spherocytosis

(4) hereditary stomatocytosis

(5) pyruvate kinase deficiency

(6) unstable hemoglobinopathy (hemoglobin Mainz, other)


Acquired hemolytic anemia due to parasitic infection:

(1) malaria


Acquired hemolytic anemia due to mechanical hemolysis:

(1) mechanical heart disease

(2) left ventricular assist device


Acquired hemolytic anemias due to other causes:

(1) microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

(2) paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)



• Cardiopulmonary bypass procedure is listed as a cause of hemolytic anemia but the duration of exposure is limited. There are other explanations for pulmonary hypertension after cardiopulmonary surgery.

• Chronic schistosomiasis may be associated with pulmonary fibrosis but the mechanism is usually not due to hemolysis.


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