A lateral ankle sprain may be graded based on the degree of damage to the ligaments. This can help separate athletes with minor injuries from those with more significant ones.
Presentation: Edema and bruising over the lateral aspect of the affected ankle.
Usual cause: Landing with the body weight on the foot, with the foot plantar flexed and internally rotated. Stretching of the ankle ligaments occurs as the foot rolls inward. This injury may occur if a play steps or lands on another player's foot or an uneven surface.
Ligaments potentially involved:
(1) anterior talofibular (ATFL): most commonly injured
(2) calcanofibular (CFL): next most injured
(3) posterior talofibular (PTFL)
Extent of Injury to the Anterior Talofibular Ligament
Extent of Injury to the Calcanofibular Ligament
Extent of Injury to the Posterior Talofibular Ligament
stretched with some fibers torn
may be stretched
positive anterior drawer
positive talar tilt
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Specialty: Surgery, orthopedic