Gingival hyperplasia (gingival enlargement) is uncommon but can be due to many causes.


Causes of gingival hyperplasia/enlargement unrelated to drugs:

(1) chronic inflammation (in reaction to gingivitis and poor oral hygiene, Crohn's disease, other)

(2) acute leukemia (usually monocytic)

(3) scurvy (erythematous with bleeding and loose teeth)

(4) fibrosis (secondary to chronic inflammation or longstanding gingival hyperplasia)

(5) hereditary metabolic disorder with accumulation of metabolites (lysosomal storage disease, sialic acid storage disease)

(6) fibromas or fibromatosis (hereditary or acquired)

(7) papillomatosis (hereditary or acquired)

(8) angiomatosis (Sturge-Weber syndrome, other)

(9) chemical allergy to chewing gum component


Hereditary causes of gingival fibromas or fibromatosis:

(1) Zimmerman-Laband

(2) tuberous sclerosis

(3) Murray-Puretic-Drescher syndrome

(4) Ramon syndrome


Hereditary causes of papillomatosis:

(1) Coden syndrome

(2) Golz-Gorlin syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia)


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