The eyes may be affected in various ways in leukemia. Some findings may be observed on the fundus exam.


(1) leukemic infiltration

(2) hemorrhage

(3) other effects


Changes that can be seen during the fundus exam may include:

(1) leopard spot retinopathy (leukaemic pigment epitheliopathy)

(2) leukemic choroidal infiltration

(3) Roth spots (white-centered retinal hemorrhages)

(4) retinal vascular sheathing (due to leukemic cell accumulation)

(5) peripheral retinal microaneurysms

(6) nodular retinal infiltrates

(7) exudative retinal detachments

(8) optic nerve infiltration


Differential diagnosis:

(1) infection

(2) chemotherapy effects

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