Redmond et al developed the Foot Posture Index (FPI) to determine the pronation or supination of the foot in a person who is standing. The authors are from the University of Leeds.
The index consists of an evaluation of 8 findings.
prominence in the region of the talonavicular joint
position of the calcaneal frontal plane
Helbing's sign (bowing of the Achilles tendon)
inferior part directed to the lateral side
inferior part directed to the medial side
supra and infra-lateral malleolar curvature
curve below the malleolus is more acute than the curve above
curve above the malleolus is more acute than the curve below
congruence of the lateral border of the foot
palpation of the talar head
more prominent on the medial side
more prominent on the lateral side
congruence of the medial longitudinal arch
proximal part lowered
proximal part elevated
abduction or adduction of the forefoot relative to the rear foot
mild to moderate supination
mild to moderate pronation
total index =
= SUM(points for all 8 findings)
• minimum score: -16
• maximum score: +16
• The higher the score the greater the pronation.
• The lower the score the greater the supination.
12 to 16
highly pronated foot
6 to 11
1 to 5
-4 to 0
-16 to -5
highly supinated foot
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Specialty: Surgery, orthopedic