Goldstein et al estimated fluid overload in children with renal failure in the pediatric intensive care unit. Complications increase with excessive fluid overload. The authors are from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.



(1) admission weight in kilograms

(2) fluid input in liters

(3) fluid output in liters


percent fluid overload =

= ((fluid in) – (fluid out)) / (admission body weight) * 100%



• One liter of water will weigh one kilogram.

• To be more accurate the density of the input and output fluids should be used, with weight of each calculated as (density) * (volume).



• A negative number indicates diuresis or other fluid loss.

• A percent fluid overload >= 10% is considered high fluid overload.



• A person who is admitted in a dehydrated state would have fluid overload overestimated..

• A person who is admitted when already in fluid overload would have an underestimate of fluid overload.


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