Sutherland et al evaluated pediatric patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit. The presence of fluid overload may be associated with increased mortality. The authors are from multiple Children's hospitals in the United States and Canada.

Patient selection: pediatric patient in the ICU requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)



(1) admission weight to the ICU in kilograms

(2) fluid input in liters

(3) fluid output in liters


percentage of fluid overload =

= ((fluid output) - (fluid input)) / (ICU admission weight) * 100%


Fluid Overload

Mortality Rate

Odds Ratio for Mortality

< 10%



10 to 19.99%



>= 20%




Other factors contributing to mortality:

(1) diagnosis of cancer

(2) multi-organ failure

(3) high PRISM II score on admission

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