Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an uncommon disorder of arteries that presents in young to middle aged adults.


Clinical findings:

(1) Most patients are young to middle aged adults and most are women.

(2) There is a nonatherosclerotic fibrous proliferation that may affect the subintima, media or adventitia of the artery, resulting in constriction of the lumen which becomes more marked as the disease progresses.

(3) A single artery or multiple arteries may be involved.

Site of Involvement

Clinical Finding

renal artery

hypertension (may be resistant to therapy)

superior mesenteric artery

abdominal pain, intestinal angina, anorexia

carotid artery


intracranial artery

headache or stroke

iliac or femoral artery

claudication in the lower extremity


Differential diagnosis:

(1) atherosclerotic disease (usually occurs in an older patient)

(2) infectious or autoimmune vasculitis

(3) amyloidosis

(4) thromboembolic disease


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