A condition that might trigger the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) in a child or adult can result in the Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome (FIRS) in a fetus or neonate.


Features of FIRS:

(1) systemic inflammation, usually triggered by an intrauterine infection, preterm labor and/or premature rupture of the membranes

(2) elevated cytokines in the amniotic fluid

(3) elevated cytokines (espeically IL-6) in fetal serum

(4) multi-organ damage


The placenta of a fetus with FIRS may show funisitis, villitis and/or chorioamnionitis.


Complications that may occur in infants with FIRS:

(1) intrauterine fetal demise

(2) respiratory distress syndrome

(3) neonatal sepsis

(4) periventricular leukomalacia

(5) cerebral palsy

(6) bronchopulmonary dysplasia


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