Refractory Cytopenia with Multilineage Dysplasia (RCMD) is one of the myelodysplastic syndromes defined by the WHO.
Patients are typically elderly.
(1) cytopenias in 2 or 3 marrow cell lines (bicytopenia or pancytopenia)
(2) dysplastic changes in >= 10% of cells from at least 2 cell lines in the marrow
(3) < 1% blasts in the peripheral blood
(4) < 5% blasts in the bone marrow
(5) Auer rods are absent
(1) >= 15% ringed sideroblasts (see below)
(2) absolute monocyte count >= 1,000 per µL
(3) >= 5% blasts in the bone marrow
(4) presence of Auer rods
Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia with ringed sideroblasts (RCMD-RS) meets the criteria for RCMD but has >= 15% ringed sideroblasts.
• Some patients progress to acute leukemia.
• The median survival for both RCMD and RCMD-RS is about 33 months.
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Specialty: Hematology Oncology, Clinical Laboratory