Smoth-Jackson listed factors that need to be considered when transferring a warning system into a culture different from the one in which the warning was developed. These factors apply to other decision support aids as well. The author is from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.




recognition and comprehension of message


recognition and interpretation of meaning


recognition and comprehension of message

overall content

recognition and comprehension of message

environment of use

physical environment (lighting, noise, temperature, moisture, etc.)

cultural difference and attitudes

differences that may impact message and how it is responded to

skills level of target audience

literacy, training and experience of people who will be using the resource

orientation requirement

training required before it can be used effectively


For each element:

(1) Is it effective in the new environment?

(2) Are there negative connotations in the message that may offend the target audience or make it less effective?

(3) Is there a better way of conveying the message to make it more effective?


Additional items to consider (not in original table):

(1) language dialect chosen for use

(2) availability of resources

(3) impact of different diagnostic methods (such as units, reference ranges and decision level cutoffs)

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.