Pertovaara et al reported a number of findings that can help to identify a patient with primary Sjogren's syndrome who is at risk for renal involvement. The authors are from Tampere University Hospital in Finland.


Renal disease in primary Sjogren's syndrome includes:

(1) overt or latent distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA)

(2) glomerular disease

(3) proteinuria, typically mild


The mean time to appearance of renal involvement was 9 years (+/- 4).


Laboratory findings predictive of renal disease:

(1) elevated serum gamma globulin (associated with dRTA)

(2) elevated serum beta-2 microglobulin (associated with dRTA and proteinuria)

(3) elevated urinary alpha-1 microglobulin (indicative of tubular proteinuria)


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