Extrapyramidal signs and symptoms are associated with a spectrum of movement disorders.


(1) drug-induced

(2) meningitis or other CNS infection

(3) other causes of brain injury


Movement disorders classified as extrapyramidal:

(1) dystonia (muscle spasms and continuous contractions), including oculogyric crisis

(2) akathisia (restlessness with an inability to sit still)

(3) pseudoparkinsonism with bradykinesia

(4) tardive dyskinesia (involuntary muscle movements in the lower face and distal extremities)

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