A patient with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) may experience a number of problems outside of the gastrointestinal tract.


Neurologic and sensory manifestations:

(1) ocular involvement: uveitis, episcleritis, iritis

(2) sensorineural hearing loss

(3) peripheral neuropathy


Inflammation of mesothelial-lined spaces:

(1) pleuritis

(2) pericarditis


Cardiopulmonary manifestations:

(1) bronchiectasis

(2) bronchitis or tracheobronchitis

(3) interstitial fibrosis

(4) myocarditis


Endocrine manifestations:

(1) thryoiditis with or without thyrotoxicosis (Basedow’s disease)


Skeletal manifestations:

(1) ankylosing spondylitis or sacroiliitis

(2) peripheral arthritis

(3) tendonitis

(4) osteopenia or osteoporosis

(5) growth retardation in pediatric patients


Skin manifestations:

(1) pyoderma gangrenosum

(2) erythema nodosum


Oral manifestations:

(1) lesions of the oral mucosa

(2) orofacial granulomastosis


Hematologic and vascular manifestations:

(1) thromboembolic disease

(2) vasculitis

(3) anemia (hemolytic, iron deficiency, megaloblastic)

(4) thrombocytosis


Hepatobiliary and pancreatic manifestations:

(1) pancreatitis

(2) primary sclerosing cholangitis

(3) cholelithiasis

(4) autoimmune hepatitis


Miscellaneous manifestations:

(1) nephrolithiasis (especially oxalate stones)

(2) sarcoidosis

(3) genital lymphedema (penile and scrotal)


The link to IBD in each condition can be demonstrated by:

(1) activity of the extraintestinal problem that is in parallel with activity of the intestinal inflammation.

(2) exclusion of other explanations


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