The Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale subdivides 3 levels of the original Glasgow Outcome Scale, thereby extending the number of levels from 5 to 8. This can better categorize patients and is more useful for monitoring patients after severe head injury.

Original Glasgow Outcome Scale

Clinical Features

Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale

dead (D)



persistent vegetative state (PVS)

nonsentient with sleep and wake cycles

persistent vegetative state

severely disabled (SD)

conscious but dependent

severely disabled, upper

severely disabled, lower

moderately disabled (MD)

independent but disabled

moderately disabled, upper

moderately disabled, lower

good recovery (GR)

no to mild residual effects

good recovery, upper

good recovery, lower



• Although more levels allow for better discrimination, the allocation may be less consistent (Brooks et al; Maas et al).

• Use of strict criteria and a structured questionnaire (Wilson et al) can improve performance.


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