Exercise may be associated with pulmonary hypertension.

Criteria for exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension - all of the following:

(1) mean pulmonary artery pressure > 30 mm Hg at a cardiac output < 10 L/min

(2) total pulmonary vascular resistance > 3 Wood units

(3) during maximum exercise but absent at rest


Conditions associated with exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension:

(1) systemic sclerosis

(2) disorders of the left heart

(3) chronic lung disease

(4) chronic pulmonary thromboembolism

(5) bone morphogenetic receptor-2 gene mutation


Possible mechanisms:

(1) pulmonary vasoconstriction

(2) pulmonary vascular remodeling

(3) increased upstream transmission of pulmonary venous pressure

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