Baumgartner developed an equation to predict the skeletal muscle mass found in a patient by DXA scan based on several body measurements. This can be used to estimate the amount of skeletal muscle when imaging systems are not readily available or affordable for an application. The author is from the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque.


(1) body weight in kilograms (measured to the nearest 0.1 kg)

(2) body height in centimeters (measured to the nearest 0.1 cm)

(3) hip circumference in centimeters (measured at the maximum posterior protrusion of the buttocks with a steel tape measure)

(4) grip strength (using a hand dynamometer in the dominant hand, calculated as the average of the best 2 out of 3)

(5) gender


appendicular skeletal muscle in kilograms =

= (0.2487 * (body weight in kilograms)) + (0.0483 * (body height in cm)) – (0.1584 * (hip circumference in cm)) + (0.0732 * (grip strength in kilograms)) + (2.5843 * (points for gender)) + 5.8828



• "Appendicular" refers to an appendage, so that the equation may reflect only the skeletal muscle in the limbs.

• The use of kilograms for grip strength is based on Table 1, page 441.

• I assume that gender is 1 for male and 0 for female.


R^2 = 0.91; SEE = 1.58

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.