Meier et al developed equations for estimating the lipid and energy content of human breast milk. This can help determine the nutritional intake of an infant fed on breast milk. The authors are from Rush Children's Hospital, University of Illinois, University of Minnesota, and Baylor College of Medicine.


lipid content in g/L =

= (4.97 * (creamatocrit in percent)) - 0.238


total caloric content in kcal per liter breast milk = caloric density =

= (46.236 * (creamtocrit in percent)) + 232.65


total caloric intake in kcal =

= (total energy content in kcal per liter) * (liter of breast milk ingested)



• The lipid content varies in breast milk depending on whether it is foremilk, hindmilk, mid-milk or composite (all phases) milk. The lipid content is greatest in the hindmilk.

• The data is based on the analysis of 17 women, with almost half black, a quarter Hispanic and a quarter Caucasian.


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