Lonnnqvist and Hesser used 2 equations to help guide needle insertion into the thoracic paravertebral space in infants and children. The authors are from St. Gorans Paediatric Hospital and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.


Patient selection: pediatric patient from 1 to 14.5 years with weight up to 61 kilograms


Level for insertion: T7 to T9



(1) lateral distance from spinous process to needle insertion point in mm

(2) skin to paravertebral space depth in mm


lateral distance in mm =

= (0.12 * (body weight in kilograms)) + 10.2


depth of needle insertion in mm to reach the paravertebral space =

= (0.53 * (body weight in kilograms)) + 21.2


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