Popp and Harrison used measurements from two dimensional Doppler echocardiography of the left ventricle during cardiac cycle to estimate stroke volume and cardiac output. The authors are from Stanford University.

Geometric cardiac model: prolate ellipse


Parameters from two dimensional echocardiography (see Figure 1, page 496):

(1) left ventricular dimension at the end of diastole in cm (Dd)

(2) left ventricular dimension at the end of systole in cm (Ds)


stroke volume in mL by Fick method =

= (0.905 * (((LV dimension end of diastole)^3) - ((LV dimension end of systole)^3))) + 8.7


cardiac output in liters per minute =

= (stroke volume in mL per systole) * (heart rate in beats per minute) / 1000

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