McKaigney et al developed a method to rapidly estimate the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from a Doppler echocardiograph. This can be helpful in an emergency situation when other methods are not available. The authors are from Queen's University (Ontario), Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado, and the Naval Medical Center (San Diego).

Doppler echocardiography exam: parasternal long-axis view in M mode


The E-point septal separation (EPSS) is the minimum distance in millimeters between:

(1) the interventricular septum and

(2) the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve (located between the E and A points).


The E point of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve is the peak excursion of the valve leaflet during passive left ventricular filling. The A point is the anterior leaflet excursion during atrial systole.


LVEF in percent =

= 71.25 - (1.67 * (EPSS in mm))


An EPSS > 7 mm is 100% sensitive (52% specificity) for identifying a patient with a severely reduced LVEF (< 30%). 

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