Findings on echocardiography can help to identify an infant with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia who is at risk of death. The authors are from multiple children’s hospitals in the United States.

Pathogenesis: pulmonary hypertension is associated with a poor outcome for a premature infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia


Patient selection: infant with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (positive pressure ventilation, oxygen by nasal cannula > 2 L/min, or FIO2 > 0.3 at or after 36 weeks postmenstrual age)


Mortality rate prior to hospital discharge: 10%


Timing for echocardiography: 34 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age


Findings on echocardiography predictive of mortality:

(1) interventricular septal position flattened or bowed to the left (adjusted OR 1.9)

(2) right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) > 44 mm Hg (adjusted OR 2.2)

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