Dry eye may occur if there is physical destruction of moisturizing (aqueous. lipid and/or mucinic) glands or their ducts.
Features of physical destruction of periocular glands:
(1) One eye may be affected while the other is not.
(2) There is a significant event that precedes the onset of the dry eye.
(3) The damage is often irreversible (unless there is correctable damage to a duct).
Types of physical destruction:
(1) trauma, especially to the eyelid
(2) surgical resection of a lacrimal gland
(3) surgery on the eyelid, conjunctiva or lacrimal duct
(4) exposure to a caustic chemical (conjunctival and/or corneal damage may be present)
(5) radiation exposure
(6) exposure to extreme temperatures
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Specialty: Ophthalmology, Immunology/Rheumatology