Dry eye may occur if there is physical destruction of moisturizing (aqueous. lipid and/or mucinic) glands or their ducts.


Features of physical destruction of periocular glands:

(1) One eye may be affected while the other is not.

(2) There is a significant event that precedes the onset of the dry eye.

(3) The damage is often irreversible (unless there is correctable damage to a duct).


Types of physical destruction:

(1) trauma, especially to the eyelid

(2) surgical resection of a lacrimal gland

(3) surgery on the eyelid, conjunctiva or lacrimal duct

(4) exposure to a caustic chemical (conjunctival and/or corneal damage may be present)

(5) radiation exposure

(6) exposure to extreme temperatures


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