A number of drugs, herbal medicines and chemicals can cause an elevation in serum prolactin levels.


Chemicals (including heavy metals)

(1) manganese

(2) organic mercury

(3) lead

(4) cadmium

(5) uranium

(6) arsenic

(7) barium

(8) styrene

(9) perchloroethylene


Herbal medicines:

(1) Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii

(2) Cimicifuga racemose

(3) Echinacea purpurea

(4) Hypericum perforatum

(5) Purariae isoflavone



(1) anesthetic gases

(2) antidepressants

(3) antihypertensive drugs (verapamil, methyldopa, reserpine)

(4) H2 blockers

(5) metoclopramide

(6) domperidone

(7) opiates

(8) estrogens

(9) protease inhibitors

(10) neuroleptics (phenothiazins, butyrophenone, atypical antipsychotic agents)


Drugs of potential abuse:

(1) cocaine


Demonstration of effect:

(1) no evidence of hyperprolactinemia prior to exposure

(2) elevated serum prolactin or evidence of hyperprolactinemia during therapy

(3) normalization of changes after discontinuation of the exposure


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