Certain drugs are associated with hypertension.

Clinical features:

(1) history of drug or chemical intake

(2) presence of hypertension

(3) reduction in blood pressure once drug or chemical stopped (exception rebound hypertension on discontinuation of a beta-blocker)


Drugs that may be associated with an elevation in blood pressure:

(1) steroids

(1a) oral contraceptives or estrogens

(1b) anabolic steroids (testosterone, other)

(1c) corticosteroids (prednisone, hydrocortisone, other)

(2) analgesics

(2a) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

(2b) COX-2 selective inhibitors (celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, other)

(3) sympathomimetic drugs

(3a) decongestants in cold or allergy medications (pseudoephedrine, other)

(3b) amphetamine or methamphetamine

(3c) anorexiants

(3d) epinephrine, norepinephrine or dopamine

(4) buproprion

(5) cocaine

(6) cyclosporine or tacrolimus

(7) desflurane

(8) erythropoietin or darbopoetin-alfa

(9) glucagon

(10) ketamine

(11) nicotine

(12) sibutamine

(13) venlafaxine


Other sources:

(1) excessive intake of liquorice (licorice)

(2) herbal remedies (due to ephedra or other compounds)

(3) ergot alkaloids

(4) ethanol (with intoxication or withdrawal)

(5) ingestion of tyramine-rich food while taking a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor



(1) discontinuation of beta-blockers or other antihypertensive drugs (rebound hypertension)

(2) discontinuation of centrally-acting alpha receptor agonists (clonidine, methyldopa)

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