Hiccups can be drug-induced. Recognizing the association can help in managing the patient, especially if the drug is an essential medication.


Drugs associated with hiccups:

(1) anesthetics, especially general anesthetics

(2) antibiotics

(3) benzodiazepines

(4) opioids or opiates

(5) corticosteroids or anabolic steroids

(6) perphenazine

(7) chemotherapeutic agents


Many of these drugs are given for conditions that can cause hiccups, so it is important to find evidence implicating the drug as the cause.


Clinical features:

(1) onset of hiccups after starting the drug

(2) disappearance of the hiccups after the drug is stopped

(3) recurrence on re-exposure to the implicated drug

(4) exclusion of other causes for hiccups


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