Sakornbut et al listed conditions associated with vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy. The authors are from Family Health Center (Waterloo, Iowa), University of New Mexico and University of Minnesota.

Patient selection: pregnant woman with vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy


Differential diagnosis:

(1) placenta previa

(2) placental abruption

(3) vasa previa

(4) placenta accreta/increta/percreta


Any preceding events should be identified. This may include:

(1) blunt trauma

(2) sexual intercourse

(3) cervical instrumentation

(4) substance abuse

(5) spontaneous rupture of the membranes

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