Several neurological disorders need to be considered for a patient with transient neurological signs and symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities.


Criteria for patient selection:

(1) transient neurologic signs and symptoms

(2) abnormalities seen on MRI


The differential diagnosis includes:

(1) stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART)

(2) familial/sporadic hemiplegic migraine (FHM/SHM)

(3) posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)

(4) mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)

(5) status epilepticus (SE)

(6) meningoencephalitis

(7) vasculitis

(8) radiation vasculopathy

(9) cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)



• Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes would be included under meningoencephalitis.


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