Vock considered possible explanations for liver rupture after blunt force. The author is from the University of Leipzig.

Most likely causes of liver rupture:

(1) abdomen strikes a hard edge

(2) abdomen strikes a stake-like object or post

(3) blow or kick to the abdomen

(4) extrathoracic cardiac massage


Least likely causes of liver rupture:

(1) fall on level ground

(2) fall down stairs


It is important to exclude all of the more likely causes before accepting one of the least likely causes.

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