Hyperchloremia may be seen with a number of conditions.

Causes of hyperchloremia include:

(1) protracted diarrhea with metabolic acidosis

(2) renal tubular acidosis

(3) ureterosigmoidostomy

(4) intestinal fistula

(5) diabetes insipidus

(6) dehydration

(7) hyperparathyroidism

(8) respiratory alkalosis

(9) drugs (multiple)

(10) administration of drug or intravenous fluid with increased chloride

(11) acute renal failure

(12) head injury with hypothalamic injury

(13) adrenocortical hyperfunction


Differential diagnosis:

(1) pseudohyperchloremia (including salicylate intoxication)

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