A number of conditions can cause a neonate or infant to have feeding problems with aspiration and respiratory distress.


Temporary causes:

(1) maternal drug use (may continue if the mother breast feeds)

(2) congenital infections


Persistent causes:

(1) tracheal cleft

(2) tracheoesophageal fistula

(3) esophageal stricture

(4) cricopharyngeal spasm

(5) neuromuscular disorders

(6) laryngomalacia

(7) severe gastroesophageal reflux

(8) vocal cord paralysis


Causes with which may be temporary or persistent:

(1) birth trauma

(2) severe neonatal hypoxia

(3) an error in drug dosing


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