A patient with cancer may develop mild to severe cognitive impairment. Identifying and treating reversible causes can result in significant improvements to the patient's quality of life..



(1) CNS involvement (primary or metastatic)

(2) paraneoplastic

(3) release of proinflammatory cytokines



(1) chemotherapy

(2) radiation therapy to the head

(3) corticosteroids

(4) immunotherapy with cytokines (interferon, etc.)

(5) pain medications

(6) sedatives

(7) gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists

(8) other


Concurrent disease-related:

(1) depression

(2) cerebrovascular disease

(3) disorientation secondary to sensory impairment (decrease in vision, hearing and other senses)

(4) fatigue

(5) anemia

(6) delirium

(7) thyroid dysfunction

(8) pain

(9) pre-existing dementia

(10) other neurological disorders


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