Antiretinal antibodies may be associated with retinopathy. The presence of antiretinal antibodies can occur in a number of conditions.


Conditions that may be associated with antiretinal antibodies:

(1) paraneoplastic disorders

(1a) carcinoma associated retinopathy (CAR)

(1b) melanoma associated retinopathy (MAR)

(2) infection-associated

(2a) toxoplasmosis

(2b) onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus)

(2c) CMV

(2d) other viruses

(3) other disorders with retinal degeneration

(3a) retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with cystoid macular edema

(3b) recoverin-associated retinopathy (RAR) without malignancy

(3c) age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)

(3d) Stiff man syndrome or other autoimmune related neurological disease

(3e) idiopathic retinopathy


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