A number of conditions may cause the mucosa of the esophagus to have a black appearance. Sometimes the cause will be readily evident but the diagnosis may also require an extensive workup.
Conditions associated with a "black esophagus":
(1) acute esophageal necrosis (AEN)
(2) malignant melanoma
(3) melanocytosis (melanosis)
(6) acanthosis nigricans (as a paraneoplastic disorder)
(7) drugs (bismuth subsalicylate, iron)
(8) corrosive injury
(9) coal dust
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