A number of conditions may cause the mucosa of the esophagus to have a black appearance. Sometimes the cause will be readily evident but the diagnosis may also require an extensive workup.


Conditions associated with a "black esophagus":

(1) acute esophageal necrosis (AEN)

(2) malignant melanoma

(3) melanocytosis (melanosis)

(4) pseudomelanosis

(6) acanthosis nigricans (as a paraneoplastic disorder)

(7) drugs (bismuth subsalicylate, iron)

(8) corrosive injury

(9) coal dust


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