### Description

Measurements of the metacarpal and proximal phalangeal bones from the hand can be used to help determine the gender of skeletal remains.

Measurements from the United Kingdom (Scheuer and Elkington)

score 1 =

= (0.0143 * (length of the second metacarpal bone in mm)) - (0.167 * (medial-lateral diameter at the base of the second metacarpal bone in mm)) + (0.0124 * (anterior-posterior diameter at the base of the second metacarpal bone in mm)) - (0.0152 * (medial-lateral diameter at the head of the second metacarpal bone in mm)) + (0.091 * (anterior-posterior diameter at the base of the second metacarpal bone in mm)) - (0.166 * (maximum diameter in the midshaft of the second metacarpal bone in mm)) + 3.61

If the score is < 1.5, then the skeleton is male.

If the score is > 1.5, then the skeleton is female.

Percent correct: 79%

score 2 =

= (-0.177 * (maximum midshaft diameter of the first metacarpal in mm)) - (0.102 * (maximum midshaft diameter of the proximal first phalangeal in mm)) + (0.0476 * (maximum midshaft diameter of the second metacarpal in mm)) + (0.0905 * (maximum midshaft diameter of the third metacarpal in mm)) - (0.175 * (maximum midshaft diameter of the fourth metacarpal in mm)) + (0.0858 * (maximum midshaft diameter of the fifth metacarpal in mm)) + 3.82

If the score is < 1.5, then the skeleton is male.

If the score is > 1.5, then the skeleton is female.

Percent correct: 76%

Measurements of Falsetti

score for second metatarsal =

= (-0.183 * (interarticular length in mm)) + (1.423 * (anterior-posterior width at midshaft in mm)) + (0.573 * (medial-lateral width at midshaft in mm)) + (1.84 * (medial-lateral width at head in mm)) + (0.631 * (medial-lateral breath at base in mm)) – 41.481

If the score is > 0, then the skeleton is male.

If the score is < 0, then the skeleton is female.

Percent correct: 92%

score for fourth metatarsal =

= (-0.0418 * (interarticular length in mm)) + (1.464 * (anterior-posterior width at midshaft in mm)) - (0.416 * (medial-lateral width at midshaft in mm)) + (0.981 * (medial-lateral width at head in mm)) + (1.038 * (medial-lateral breath at base in mm)) – 31.342

If the score is > 0, then the skeleton is male.

If the score is < 0, then the skeleton is female.

Percent correct: 86%

score for fifth metatarsal =

= (-0.004 * (interarticular length in mm)) + (0.848 * (anterior-posterior width at midshaft in mm)) + (0.17 * (medial-lateral width at midshaft in mm)) + (1.22 * (medial-lateral width at head in mm)) + (0.787 * (medial-lateral breath at base in mm)) – 30.68

If the score is > 0, then the skeleton is male.

If the score is < 0, then the skeleton is female.

Percent correct: 84%