Measurements of the femur can be used to determine the probable gender of human remains.
Multiple Measurements in Americans
Patient population: 47 females and 70 males in the Tennessee Data Bank, composed both of African and European Americans
= (0.45623 * (epicondylar breadth in mm)) + (0.61152 * (midshaft sagittal diameter in mm)) + (0.57968 * (midshaft transverse diameter in mm)) – (0.21425 * (midshaft circumference in mm)) – 50.5667
• A score > 0 indicates male gender.
• A score < 0 indicates female gender
• 91% of skeletons were correctly sexed using the equation.
• Performance may be suboptimal at the age extremes.
Multiple Measurements in Japanese (Hinihara)
Patient population: 48 adult males and 40 adult females from Japan
= (bicondylar length in mm) + (9.85 * (vertical diameter of head in mm)) + (11.99 * (minimum transverse diameter of the shaft in mm)) + (4.13 * (bicondylar width in mm))
• A score > 1431.82 indicates male gender.
• A score < 1431.82 indicates female gender
• 96.2% of skeletons were correctly sexed using the equation.
The maximum diameter of the femoral head correlates with gender. The presence of articular cartilage adds about 2 mm relative to the diameter for dried bone. The following is presumably for dry bone based on the collections used.
Diameter in mm
> 45 mm
43 – 45 mm
< 43 mm
derived by combining the data on page 176
• The presence of degenerative joint disease may increase the maximum diameter of the femoral head.
Multiple Femoral Measurements in Whites (Taylor and DeBennardo)
male score =
= (2.83443 * (circumference in mm)) + (0.83965 * (length in mm)) - (3.28170 * (anterioposterior diameter in mm)) - 270.04932
female score =
= (2.42105 * (circumference in mm)) + (0.79874 * (length in mm)) - (2.72106 * (anterioposterior diameter in mm)) - 232.29536
• I could not find reference for the sites of the measurements or adjustments made for the presence of cartilage. In the implementation I am assuming midshaft measurement for the circumference and sagittal diameter.
If male score > female score, then male.
If female score > male score, then female.
probability of being in male group =
= EXP(male score) / (EXP (male score) + EXP(female score))
probability of being in female group =
= EXP(female score) / (EXP (male score) + EXP(female score))
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Specialty: Clinical Laboratory