One of the late neurological complications of boxing is dementia (dementia pugilistica)


NOTE: This overlaps with the punch drunk syndrome (see above).


Clinical features:

(1) history of boxing, often with a history of being knocked out one or more times or having other severe head trauma

(2) older adult

(3) moderate to severe loss of memory

(4) severe impairment of cognitive function

(5) ataxia or difficulty walking


Most affected patients have abnormalities that can be identified on CT or other imaging studies.


Differential diagnosis:

(1) Alzheimer's disease

(2) vascular dementia

(3) alcohol or drug abuse

(4) other causes of dementia


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