Some patients undergoing a cryoablation procedure may develop cryoshock.

Criteria: shock triggered by cryoablation (for hepatocellular carcinoma, other tumors)


Frequency: up to 1% of cases


Mechanism: release cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF alpha)



(1) volume of tissue being frozen

(2) duration of cryotherapy

(3) complete thaw prior to refreezing and double freeze cycles


Clinical features:

(1) initial cryoreaction (chills, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea)

(2) multi-organ failure with coagulopathy and hypotension

(3) high mortality rate

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.