Zembic et al listed criteria for metabolically healthy obesity. A patient who has metabolically healthy obesity shows no increase in cardiovascular disease or mortality. The authors are from multiple institutions in Germany and France.

Patient selection: age from 18 to 75 years of age

Above normal weight: body mass index >= 25 kg per square meter



(1) systolic blood pressure < 130 mm Hg

(2) no blood pressure lowering medications

(3) waist-to-hip ratio < 1.03 for a male and < 0.95 for a female

(4) no self-reported diabetes mellitus


Additional a priori definitions:

(1) absence of metabolic syndrome by the NCEATP-III criteria

(2) HOMA-IR < 2.5

(3) desirable findings:

(3a) vital signs: systolic blood pressure < 130 mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure < 85 mm Hg

(3b) waist measurement: <= 102 cm male or <= 88 cm for a female

(3c) laboratory measures: fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL, HbA1c < 5.7%, serum triglyceride < 150 mg/dL, total cholesterol < 240 mg/dL, HDL-C < 40 mg/dL for male or < 50 mg/dL for female,

(3d) not taking: blood pressure, lipid or glucose lowering medications

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