Williams listed criteria for making the diagnosis of resistant hypertension. The author is from the University of Leicester in England.

Criteria for the diagnosis of resistant hypertension - all of the following:

(1) failure to achieve blood pressure goals

(2) medical management with optimum doses of 3 antihypertensive drugs consisting of:

(2a) a thiazide

(2b) a calcium-channel blocker

(2c) a rennin-angiotensin system blocker



• Adherence to the regimen should be included as a criterion.

• A person is more likely to be noncompliant if troublesome side effects occur.


It is essential that the blood pressure measurement be accurate and reproducible.

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