Veldt et al evaluated patients who used alcohol based on clinical and laboratory findings. The authors are from Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in Rennes, France.


Alcohol Intake

Biochemical Markers


none, confirmed

all normal


< 3 units per day if male, < 2 units per day if female

all normal


alternating sobriety and excessive intake



> 3 units per day if male, > 2 units per day if female


excessive by intake

present but amount unknown

abnormal without other explanation

excessive by injury


Biochemical markers were considered normal:

(1) negative breath, blood and/or urine alcohol

(2) normal MCV

(3) normal GGT


Problems in evaluation:

(1) absence of or unreliability in reports of alcohol intake

(2) abnormal biochemical markers caused by another disorder

(3) end-stage liver disease, with biochemical markers remaining abnormal despite abstinence


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