Shorvon and Ferlisi defined refractory and super-refractory convulsive status epilepticus (SE). The authors are from the UCL Institute of Neurology in London.


Patient selection: convulsive status epilepticus


Refractory convulsive status epilepticus - both of the following:

(1) failure of usual drug therapy

(2) general anesthesia is required to obtain control


Non-convulsive SE rarely requires general anesthesia for control.


Super-refractory convulsive status epilepticus - one or both of the following:

(1) refractory SE lasting >= 24 hours after starting general anesthesia

(2) refractory SE that recurs upon reducing or stopping general anesthesia


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.