Priem and Oosterhuis listed criteria for the diagnosis of birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR). The authors are from the University of Gent in Belgium and the University of Leiden in The Netherlands.


The major criterion is the appearance of the fundus:

(1) multiple small depigmented flecks (birdshot spots, that mimic the spread of birdshot from a shotgun)

(2) these radiate from the margins of the optic nerve head towards the periphery

(3) bilateral and symmetrical


Other findings in the fundus:

(1) mild to severe vitritis

(2) retinal vasculopathy with cystoid macular edema

(3) involvement of the optic nerve head


Clinical findings (>= 2 should be present):

(1) blurred vision

(2) floaters

(3) night blindness

(4) distorted vision

(5) photopsia

(6) irritation

(7) ocular pain

(8) decreased visual acuity


Most patients have HLA A29.



(1) epiretinal membranes

(2) retinal neovascularization

(3) subretinal neovascular membranes

(4) cellophane maculopathy

(5) recurrent vitreous hemorrhage

(6) optic atrophy

(7) retinal detachment


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