Morton et al evaluated patients for cerebrovascular injury following blunt trauma. The criteria were based on the Denver (Biffl et al) and Memphis (Fabian et al) criteira. The criteria are used at the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center in Seattle.

Criteria for imaging studies for cerebrovascular injury following blunt trauma:

(1) arterial hemorrhage from carotid and/or vertebral arteries

(2) expanding cervical hematoma

(3) carotid bruit AND age < 50 years

(4) cerebral infarction on MRI or CT scan

(5) unexplained central or lateralizing neurologic deficit

(6) unexplained transient ischemic attack (TIA)

(7) Horner's syndrome

(8) high energy injury AND LeFort II or III fracture

(9) high energy injury AND complex mandibular fracture

(10) high energy injury AND cervical spine subluxation

(11) high energy injury AND C-spine fracture extending to the transverse foramen

(12) high energy injury AND fracture of C1, C2 and/or C3

(13) high energy injury AND Glasgow coma score < 6 AND punctate hemorrhages in the brainstem, basal ganglia and/or corpus callosum

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