Annesley listed features of a well-written abstract. The author is from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.


General features:

(1) self-contained (stands on its own without the need to read the paper)

(2) clearly states the objective(s) of the paper

(3) clearly states the evidence and conclusions of the paper relative to the objective(s)

(4) follows the order used in the body of the paper (introduction, methods, results, analysis, discussion)


Quality of the writing:

(1) has correct style and format

(2) stays within the word limits

(3) has the same key words and terms as the rest of the article

(4) has a limited use of abbreviations


"Do nots":

(1) does not contain information not reported in the paper

(2) does not reach unsubstantiated conclusions

(3) does not include references

(4) does not cite table, figures or diagrams


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